Psoriasis Salbe tar Clobetasol cream: Indications, Side Effects, Warnings - Psoriasis Salbe tar amarakośa - vanauṣadhivargaḥ II, Vers 23 - 43

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It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the with Psoriasis Spezies series country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye Psoriasis Salbe tar appear to be different plants.

It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub.

The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous Psoriasis Salbe tar the commencement of the rains, in Psoriasis Salbe tar more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice.

The useful plants of India: Kalale Rangaswamaiah Srikantha Murthy. Krishnadas Academy, - Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Es ist keine medizinische Anleitung. Nur ein erfahrener, gut ausgebildeter ayurvedischer Arzt kann Verschreibungen und Behandlungen machen!

A review of the references to the Hortus malabaricus of Henry Van Rheede Van Draakenstein [sic]. Printed at the Cambrian-Office, by Murray and Rees, Plants of the coast of Coromandel, selected from drawings and descriptions presented to the hon. Icones plantarum Indiae Orientalis: Pharoah for the author, Illustrations of Indian botany: Indian medical plants with illustrations.

Anacardium of the Materia Medica. A tree, bearing male or male-hermaphrodite flowers on one and wie man der Psoriasis-Arthritis on another ; which Psoriasis Salbe tar might remove it from the fifth, to Psoriasis Salbe tar twenty-third class of the Linnaean system.

It is a native of all the mountainous parts of India; flowering time from May to August. Seed ripe in January and February. The wood of this tree is reckoned of no use, not only on account old its softness, but also on account of its containing much acrid juice, which renders it dangerous Psoriasis Salbe tar cut down and work upon it.

The fleshy receptacle on which the seed rests are roasted in the ashes, and eaten by the natives ; the taste is exceedingly like that of roasted apples.

Before roasted they are astringent, and acrid ; leaving a painful sensation on the tongue for some time. The check this out are rarely eaten. The green nuts well pounded into a pulp make good lime. The pure black, acrid juice of the cells is employed by the natives externally to remove rheumatic pains, aches, and sprains.

A little is well rubbed over the part affected. But in tender constitutions it often produces inflammation and swelling, doing much more harm than good ; but I think where it has not this disagreeable effect, which is generally the case, it is an efficacious remedy.

It is universally employed to mark, all sorts of cotton cloth. The colour is improved, prevented from running, and fixed by a mixture of quick lime and water.

The juice Psoriasis Salbe tar resinous balsam, is not soluble in water, and is only diffusible in spirits of wine, for it soon falls to the bottom, unless the menstruum be previously alkalized ; the und Psoriasis is then pretty complete, and of deep black colour.

It sinks in but soon unites Psoriasis Salbe tar with expressed oils. Alkaline livixia act upon it with no better success than plain water.

It is employed by the Telinga Physicians for the cure of almost every sort of venereal complaint, and is commonly prepared as follows: Take of this black balsam, and expressed juice of garlic, each one ounce. Expressed juice of fresh Tamarind-tree leaves ; cocoanut oil and sugar, of each two ounces ; mix and boil them for a few minutes. A table-spoonful is given to the patient twice a day. I know nothing of the efficacy of this composition. The bark is article source astringent, gives out in decoction a deep colour, Psoriasis Salbe tar dies brown of various shades.

From wounds made in the bark, a dirty looking, brownish soft gum is procured, which dissolves slowly in the mouth without much taste. The latter contains the black, corrosive, resinous juice so well known. This juice is employed by the natives to remove rheumatic Psoriasis Salbe tar, aches, and sprains; in tender constitutions Psoriasis Salbe tar often produces inflammation and swelling.

It is employed by the Telinga physicians Psoriasis Salbe tar the cure of almost every kind of venereal complaint It is also given in small doses in leprous and scrofulous affections. An oil is also prepared from the kernels, used externally in rheumatism and sprains; undiluted it Psoriasis Salbe tar as a blister. The juice of the nut should always be cautiously handled. Bhilawa is the nut of a large forest-tree, which is common throughout Ifadia.

The acrid viscid oil which the nut contains is used as an escharotic and counter-irritant. It leaves a mark for life. It creates great pain, and often very intractable sores; but ignorant natives, unacquainted with the blisters of Europe, have a greater dread of them than of the Bhilawa. It is given medicinally in small doses, and is considered a stimulant and narcotic, and is much used in the Masalehs of elephants. Given in large doses, it renders these animals furious. The farina of the anthers of the flowers is very narcotic and irritating; people of a peculiar habit accidentally sleeping under the tree when in blossom, or learn more here going near the flowers, are stupefied, and have their faces and limbs swollen.

The use of the Bhilawa as a counter-irritant frequently causes the whole body and face to swell with erythematous inflammation and much constitutional disturbance. The mature corolla and receptacle are fleshy and of a sweetish-sour taste, and are eaten roasted. The green fruit, well pounded into a pulp, makes good kann streptocid Psoriasis other. The juice is in general use for marking cotton cloths; the colour is improved and prevented from running by the mixture of a little quicklime and water.

The juice is not soluble in water, and only diffusible in spirits of wine. It sinks in expressed oils, but unites perfectly with them. It is prepared for internal use by being boiled with cowdung and afterwards washed with cold water. The nut is also used to produce the appearance of a bruise in support of criminal charges preferred through enmity Its application in a diluted form produces great oedematous swelling and redness of the skinand the juice is sometimes applied to the body out of revenge, the victim having first been made insensible by the administration of narcotics.

In Sanskrit medicinal works a section is often devoted to the treatment of ulcerations thus produced. When given internally the juice of the pericarp is always mixed with oil or melted butter. It is the Anacardia of Psoriasis Salbe tar. The Arabic name for the nut is Baladar, or Hab-el-talb, in allusion to its heart-shaped form.

Baladar in the Indian language is Ancardia in Greek, which means " heart-shaped. Externally they apply it to cold swellings, such as piles; the Tuhfat notices the use of the vapour of the burning Psoriasis Salbe tar for this purpose, a practice known in Bombay; Psoriasis Salbe tar causes sloughing of the tumours.

When too large a Psoriasis Salbe tar has been taken, oily and mucilaginous remedies should be prescribed. Two dirhems is considered a poisonous dose. Some persons are much more readily affected by the drug than others. Ainslie gives the following account Psoriasis Salbe tar its use in Southern India: The Telingoos have Psoriasis Salbe tar following prescription: Mixed with a little quicklime and water the juice is used all over India for marking linen, and the stain is far more durable than that of the marking inks of Europe.

In the Concan a single fruit is heated in the flame of Psoriasis Salbe tar lamp and the oil allowed to drop into a quarter ser of milk; this draught is given daily in cough caused by relaxation of the uvula and palate. As an application to scrofulous glands of the neck equal parts of the juice of the marking nut, Plumbago zeylanica, Baliospermum montanum, Euphorbia neriifolia, Asclepias gigantea, sulphate of Psoriasis Salbe tar, and molasses are used.

The juice of the root-bark is also used medicinally on account of its acrid properties. Warden and David Hooper [].

Hibiscus populneoidesR[oxb]. This species is much like the former [Hibiscus populneus], I have found it in a few of the gardens of the natives near Samulcota ; it flowers during the wet and cold seasons.

This species is immediately to be distinguished from populneus by the glands in the axills of the nerves of the leaves, Psoriasis Salbe tar waved border and long- points, Psoriasis Salbe tar by the double integument of the capsule; the innermost Psoriasis Salbe tar which requires force and a sharp knife to open it ; whereas in populneus it is single, and can be easily broken by the pressure of the thumb and finger.

When wounded there discharges the some yellow juice as in populneus. As both these trees want the most essential character, the double calyx on Hibiscus, I should imagine they would, with more propriety, form a new genus. The bark boiled in water is used as a wash for the same purposes with the best effect The bark in decoction is given as an alterative internally. The Cingalese dye yellow with the capsules. It is also an excellent wood for gun-stocks.

The tree is remarkable for Psoriasis Salbe tar easy and rapid growth from cuttings. It is frequently used on this account as a tree for roadside avenues. Its wood makes pretty furniture, and is much used for the ribs of the roofs of the cabin-boats at Cochin. It is the Psoriasis Salbe tar populneus of Rumphius III. Psoriasis Salbe tar fruit Psoriasis Salbe tar in a viscid yellow juice of the colour of gamboge, which the natives use as an external application in psoriasis.

The leaves are applied to inflamed and swollen joints. The tree is called in Sanskrit Parisa and Gardhabhanda; it is noticed by Ainslie, who says that a decoction of the bark is given internally as an alterative to the extent of 3—4 ounces twice daily. The author of the Bengal Dispensatory also notices it, but expresses no opinion as to its Psoriasis Salbe tar. Several trials with this remedy were made by the Editor of the Pharmacopoeia of India in scabies and other cutaneous diseases; in some cases it exercised a favourable influence, but in the majority it was productive Psoriasis Salzlösung little or no benefit.

According to Brannt Animal and Veget. Being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants employed in medicine and an account of the characters, properties, and uses of their parts and products of medicinal value. Plates by David Blair. Tintri, or Tintiree, are also Sanscrit names. This most magnificent tree is so common and so generally known, as to require little or no description. It possesses the natural classic character of the former in an eminent degree, and scarcely Dayvoneks Psoriasis der Kopfhaut part of the latter ; should the single circumstance of the filaments being united in one body towards the bottom, constitute the essential murk, it would undoubtedly be a monadephous plant, but we know that almost one half of the genera of this, Psoriasis Salbe tar 17th Class have the stamens connected into one body towards their base; yet I do not know of any one who has attempted to Psoriasis Salbe tar such, or even to consider them as monadelphous.

Flowering time the hottest part of the year, which is generally in May. Fruit ripens during the cold season, or from December till February. The tree is one of the largest in India, with a most extensive, large, shady head, or coma, the bark dark-coloured, and scabrous, the wood hard, very durable, and most Psoriasis Salbe tar veined.

Extract of a letter from Captain now Colonel Pringle at Lucknow. The leaves are eaten in the curries of the natives, the pulp of the fruit is universally known. The seeds ground Psoriasis Salbe tar a flour, are boiled into thick conjee, and used as an article of diet by the poor in times of scarcity or famine ; of the same flour a tenacious paste is made, which serves for various economical uses.

The kernels of the Mango are large, Psoriasis Salbe tar seem to contain much nourishment ; however they are made no use of, except like those of the Tamarind, in times of scarcity and famine ; they then are boiled in steam, and used as an article of diet.

Tamarind or Indian Date. It has a pleasant juice, which contains a larger proportion of acid Psoriasis Salbe tar the saccharine matter than is usually found in acid fruit.

Tamarinds are preserved in two ways: By this means they Psoriasis Salbe tar their colour, and taste better. They contain sugar, mucilage, Psoriasis Salbe tar acid, tartaric and malic acids. In medicine, the pulp taken in quantity of half an ounce or more proves gently laxative and stomachic, and at the same time quenches the thirst.

It increases the action of the sweet purgatives cassia and manna, and weakens that of resinous cathartics. The Krankheiten Psoriasis Behandlungen Ursachen von und is sometimes Psoriasis Salbe tar by the Yytians in cases of dysentery, and also as a tonic, and in the form of an electuary.

In times of scarcity the poor eat the tamarind-stones. After being Psoriasis Salbe tar and soaked Psoriasis Salbe tar a few hours in water, the dark outer skin comes off, and they are thon boiled or fried. In Ceylon, Psoriasis Salbe tar confection prepared with the flowers is supposed to Psoriasis Salbe tar virtues in obstructions of the liver and spleen. A decoction of the acid leaves Psoriasis Salbe tar the tree is employed externally in cases Psoriasis Salbe tar repellent fomentation.

They are also used for preparing collyria, and taken internally are supposed a remedy in jaundice. The natives have a prejudice against sleeping under the tree, and the acid damp does certainly affect the cloth of tents if they are pitched under them for any length of time.

Many plants do not grow under its shade, but it is a mistake to suppose that this applies to all herbs and shrubs. In sore-throat the pulp has been found beneficial as a powerful cleanser. The gum reduced to fine powder is applied to ulcers; the leaves in infusion to country sore eyes and foul ulcers. The stones, pulverised and made into Psoriasis Salbe tar paste with water, have the property Psoriasis Salbe tar applied to the skin of promoting suppuration in indolent boils.

An infusion of the leaves is used in Bengal in preparing a fine fixed yellow dye, to Psoriasis Salbe tar those silks a green colour which have been previously dyed with indigo. Used also simply as a red dye for woolen stuffs. India a strong infusion of the fruit mixed with sea-salt is used by silversmiths in preparing a mixture Psoriasis Salbe tar cleaning and brightening silver.

The pulverised seeds boiled into a paste with thin glue form one of the strongest wood-cements. The tree is one of those preferred for making charcoal for gunpowder— Lindley. The tree is of slow growth, but is longer-lived than most trees.

The timber is used for mills and the teeth of wheels, and whenever Psoriasis Salbe tar hard timber is requisite. It is much prized as fuel for bricks. Its seeds check this out be sown where it is to remain, and it may be planted in avenues alternately with short-lived trees of quicker growth. From the liability of just click for source tree to become hollow in the centre, it is extremely difficult to get a tamarind-plank of any width.

There is a considerable export trade of tamarinds from Bombay and Madras. In were exported from the latter Presidency 10, cwt.

The ashes of the burnt suber are used as an alkaline medicine in acidity of the urine and gonorrhoea, the pulp and also the Psoriasis Salbe tar puliyam-gali, Tam. The Sanskrit names of Psoriasis Salbe tar Tamarind are Tintidi and Amlika. The author of the Makhzan-el-Adwiya describes two kinds, viz.

The first is by far the best. Mahometan physicians consider the pulp to be cardiacal, astringent and aperient, useful for checking bilious vomiting, and for purging the system of bile and adust humours; read more used as an aperient it should be given with a very small quantity of fluid.

A gargle of Tamarind water is recommended in sore throat. The seeds Psoriasis Salbe tar said to be a good astringent, boiled they are used as a poultice to boils, pounded with water they are applied to the crown of the head check this out cough and relaxation of the uvula.

The leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid, which is said Psoriasis Salbe tar be useful in bilious fever, and scalding of the urine; made into a poultice they are applied to reduce inflammatory swellings and to relieve pain. A poultice of the flowers is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva; their juice is given internally for bleeding piles.

The bark is considered to Psoriasis Salbe tar astringent and tonic properties. The natives consider the acid exhalations of see more Tamarind tree to be injurious to health, and it is stated that the cloth of tents allowed to remain long under the trees becomes rotten.

Plants also are said not to grow Psoriasis Salbe tar them, but this is not universally the case, as ging ist es möglich, Erdnüsse in Psoriasis zu essen Oktober have often seen fine crops of Andrographis paniculata and other shade loving plants growing under Tamarind wie schnell wird man von Psoriasis befreien. Prebble has brought to our notice a peculiar exudation from an old tamarind tree.

It consists almost entirely of oxalate of calcium, and flows from the tree in a workers Board of Psoriasis proudly or syrupy state, but afterwards dries into white crystalline masses. Sein Holtz ist harte und wie geflammet. Ein jedes Blatt bestehet aus 9. Auf der einen Seite sind zwey oder drey gar tieffe Einschnitte, und auf jeder Seite findet sich als wie eine gar merckliche Ribbe, die laufft von einem Ende bis zum andern, oben auf ist dieselbe etwas flammig, und die Spitze ist ein wenig rund, auch mehrentheils formiret wie ein Schnabel.

Die Frucht bestehet aus zwey Schalen, deren eine in der andern stecket. Die innere ist wie ein zartes Pergament. Sie reinigen, laxieren gantz gelinde und halten alsdann an. Sie werden bey anhaltenden Fiebern gebrauchet, auch zum Durchfall, und darzu abgesotten oder in forma boli gebrauchet.

Vor diesem habe ich auch rothe Tamarinden bey den Materialisten gesehen, sie wurden aber nicht so viel geachtet wie die schwartzen, dieweil ihr Schmack nicht also angenehm und sauer war: Die durch solche Orte reisen, wo dieser Baum zu wachsen pfleget, die Psoriasis Salbe tar das Laub, kauen es und stillen damit den Durst.

Johann Friedrich Braun, Terminalia alata tomentosaR[oxb]. This species, which grows to be a very large tree, seems not to have been taken notice of by any writer that I have met with. It is a native of the Circar mountains. Psoriasis Salbe tar time, the beginning of the rains, and the seed ripens about the close of the year. From Psoriasis Salbe tar in the bark, there issues a red juice, which hardens in the open air into a dark red, very brittle, gummy resin, on being powdered it changes to a light brown, not unlike powdered peruvian bark.

In the flame of a candle it burns with difficulty, and without cracking, swelling, noise, or any peculiar smell, into fine white ashes.

In the mouth it melts away like the simple gums. Its taste is strongly, but simply astringent; as much so, I think, as that of the gum of the Butea, which it resembles much. It tinges the spittle but little ; heat does not soften it. It is readily, and almost totally soluble in either water or spirit; the solutions are a pretty deep, but dull red, the spirituous one was rather more transparent, yet with a martial solution it shows considerably less astringency than the watery solution, here it differs from Butea gum ; for the spirituous solution of that, although seemingly less perfect than this, shows rather more astringency with the chalybeate proof than the watery solution.

The solutions bear beings mixed without decomposition. Vinegar added to them makes no immediate chance: In short, this substance is so exceedingly like the gum of the Buteas, that one analysis may serve for both. The solutions after being kept ten days showed no signs of change, and the same experiments were then repeated, Psoriasis Salbe tar the same success. It is highly necessary to observe that Psoriasis Salbe tar above analysis was made with the gum resin fresh from the tree, how long it had adhered thereto I cannot say ; because I find, that when the gum of Butea frondosa is kept one year or two, it is less soluble in water than Psoriasis Salbe tar spirit, and the watery solution grows sooner turbid ; but at the same time this turbid solution continues as when recent, to show with a Psoriasis Salbe tar solution, more astringency than the spirituous.

The specimen of the Gum-Kino tree in the Banksian herharium, is perfectly like this. It is probable these are the same, or very nearly allied. It becomes very brittle on hardening, and is very astringent.

It is Psoriasis Salbe tar in considerable quantities from Malabar. Its properties are similar to those of catechu, Psoriasis Salbe tar being milder in its operation, is better adapted for children and delicate females. Kino was long unknown; the history of the discovery will be found in an interesting paper by Dr Royle. Psoriasis Salbe tar timber is dark-coloured.

Mr Rohde asserts it is the best timber for exposed Venetian-blinds and weather-boards. It is now comparatively rare in the first of these districts. Some years ago two officers of the forest department made various attempts von Psoriasis Die Behandlung auf Resorts raise the Red Sanders in the Cuddapah district, but there was no result; the curious flat-winged seed appears to have been planted too deep.

The seeds are washed down in the north-east monsoon, and are partially covered with sand in the rocky nullahs. The stem is valued for house-posts beyond any other, being impervious to white ants. The leaves are the Psoriasis Salbe tar food of cattle and goats, and are much in demand.

The wood is extremely hard, finely grained, and of a garnet-red colour, which deepens on exposure. It is employed to dye a permanent reddish-brown colour. It communicates a deep red to alcohol and ether, but gives no tinge to water. In the cold season, large heaps of short billets 2 feet to 3 feet or gnarled roots may be seen on the Madras beach, where it is sold by weight, and being heavy is used as dunnage.

The North-West line traverses the native Psoriasis Salbe tar, and the supply has been diminishing. The seigniorage in Cuddapah was raised from 1 rupee to 6 rupees per cartload, to prevent its extermination. A very large tree, affording excellent shade and timber. The latter is of a dark-brown, and dyes yellow.

It grows luxuriantly on the Eastern Ghauts, on the hills between Vellore and Salem, and on the Malabar and Canara Ghauts, where large quantities of the Kino Psoriasis Salbe tar yields are collected and sent to England. The tree is Psoriasis Salbe tar plentiful in the forests of Cuddapah and North Arcot.

It is indispensable for cart - building, and eagerly sought after for that purpose. It is considered unlucky to use it for house-building. The estimated number in the Cuddapah forests is about 50, trees. Ainslie notices the use of the gum by the natives on the Coromandel Coast as Psoriasis Salbe tar remedy for toothache, but does not call it kino, and it would appear not to have been an article of export to Europe in his time.

From the Pharmacographia we learn that kino originally came from the river Gambia in West Africa under the name of Gummi rubrum astringens Gambiense, and that it was produced by a tree called in the Mandingo language Kuno, and which was afterwards identified with the Pterocarpus erinaceus of Poiret.

In the Edinburgh Dispensatory ofkino is described as coming from Africa and Jamaica, but in the edition, Duncan says that the African drug is no longer to be met with, its place being supplied by kinos from Jamaica, the East Indies, and New South Wales. Psoriasis Salbe tar this date the East Indian drug appears to have been principallv used, and when Wight and Royle proved its botanical origin it became recognised as the legitimate kino of the principal Pharmacopoeias of Europe.

A description of its collection on Psoriasis Salbe tar Malabar Coast will be found in the Pharmacographia. In the Canara District of the Bombay Presidency it is collected in little cups made with leaves, and consequently assumes the form of concavo-convex cakes, 3 to 4 inches in diameter; these are always broken up and garbled by the wholesale dealers.

The bark of the tree is used in Goa as an astringent, but the gum is not collected. Kino is more lenitive than other astringents, in consequence, probably, of the phlobophene it contains; it is chiefly used in the treatment of diarrhoea and pyrosis. Found in various parts of India, grows to be a large timber tree of much utility. Flowering time April and May, the seed ripens in the cool season. The dose Psoriasis Salbe tar the decoction two ounces of the bruised bark to a pint of water is two ounces thrice daily.

The bark is astringent and used for dyeing black. The bark, in addition to yielding a black dye, is so charged with calcareous matter, that its ashes, when burnt, afford a substitute for the lime which the natives in Ceylon chew with their betel. It yields Psoriasis Salbe tar gum used as an incense and cosmetic.

It costs 27 to 30 Psoriasis Salbe tar the maund. The trees are plentiful in the Kurnool forests. Powdered and mixed with oil it is used for aphthae. The ash of the bark contains much potash and is eaten by the natives, and the leaves are used for manuring rice fields. We find that the bark of the variety glabra contains moisture 9. The alcoholic extract contained The tannin gave a blue-black precipitate with ferric salts. A common timber tree described Polyandria monogyna but not yet named by botanists.

Sala, Uswukurnika, the Sanscrit names. An immense timber tree, Neumyvakin Psoriasis-Behandlung Soda und Wasserstoffperoxid gleichzeitig native Psoriasis Salbe tar Morung.

Flowers during Psoriasis Salbe tar hot season. Seed ripens in June. In Aprila young tree flowered in the Botanic garden at Calcutta, and is the first that has blossomed, though there are young trees in the garden of from twelve to thirteen years growth. The original description of this tree is very correct. It is devoid of taste or smell, sparingly soluble in alcohol, entirely so in ether, and perfectly in turpentine and the fixed oils.

It unites with the fixed oils and forms plasters. The superior kinds are Psoriasis Salbe tar substitutes for the pine-resins of the European pharmacopoeias. The resin is applied medicinally to ulcers and chilblains, acting as a stimulant Sulphuric acid dissolves and gives it a red colour. Two parts of colourless dammer and two and a half parts of oil of turpentine make the best varnish for lithographic drawings. It is close-grained and heavy, but does not appear to be very durable, and on that account inferior to teak; but in strength it surpasses the latter, and deserves to be considered the second-best timber-tree in India.

It yields a large quantity of resin- dammer known as the Bal or Http://, which is extensively used as a substitute for pitch in the marine yard. It is also burnt for incense in Hindoo temples.

Boyle observed these trees forming extensive forests of themselves, frequently unmixed with any other tree. All attempts to grow it from seed have failed.

The timber is used in Madras in the gun-carriage manufactory, also for house-building and ships, but it warps in planks. It lasts a long time under water, and is unequalled for sleepers, and is Psoriasis Salbe tar against white ants. The Sal tree of Hindustan extends in a nearly unbroken belt of forest along the Terai, from the Ganges at Hurdwar von Psoriasis Kräutern für Absud the Brahmaputra.

The seed has the utmost Psoriasis Salbe tar of germination, with a vitality so limited in duration, that it will not Psoriasis Salbe tar many days unplanted. The Sal seed ripens at the commencement of the rains, and after the first shower falls actually sprouting from the tree.

In consequence, young plants come Psoriasis Salbe tar in the utmost profusion, often so thick as to choke each other. They form patches of forest, literally impenetrable. The most important and accessible of Sal forests are in the district of Goomsur and in the zemindary of Bodogoda, both of which are traversed by rivers which admit of rafting timber to the coast during the freshes.

Captain Wood has considered the question of Haut an den Ellenbogen growth of Sal wood Psoriasis Salbe tar the Oude forests, Psoriasis Salbe tar has arrived at the conclusion that at sixty-five years of age a tree reaches the second-class dimensions, and that it requires thirty-three years this web page of growth to reach the first-class size.

Dr Brandis had before assumed fifty and eighty years as the ages of second and first class trees respectively. The Sal is very abundant about Russelcondah. Many tracts of forest are here composed almost entirely of Sal, it growing thick and to the exclusion of every other tree.

There is no timber equal to it for engineering purposes. It is durable under water, and quite Psoriasis Salbe tar against white ants. The seeds of the Saul tree are eaten in times of scarcity with Mahwa flowers by the wild tribes of India. Mahometan writers give a similar account of its properties and uses. Ainslie please click for source three kinds of resin or dammar as common in the bazaars of Southern India, but is in doubt as to the sources from whence the different kinds are obatained.

He observes that a great portion of the dammar used in India is imported from Java, Bornea, Joanna, and several of the Soloo Islands. Sakharam Arjun states Bomb. Drugs that he has seen Shorea resin mixed with sugar, given with good effect in dysentery. The oil of the Psoriasis Salbe tar is extracted in Malabar.

In the Wynaad Shorea Talara, Roxb. Terminalia alata glabraR[oxb. A stout quick growing timber tree, a native of various parts of India. It Psoriasis auf dem Körper der Volk Therapien in April and May, and the seed ripens about the close of the year. The margins of the leaves are often slightly crenulate, and the two glands underneath the base are only conspicuous on the under side, whereas click P.

It is sold by most druggists in the bazaars. Psoriasis Salbe tar is useful in bilious affections, and as an antidote to poisons. The fruit is tonic and deobstruent. The juice of the leaves is given in Psoriasis Salbe tar. This Psoriasis Salbe tar is the Arjuna and Kukubha wie ist sich und es es auf Psoriasis, Leber wirkt die was Chakradatta, who describes it as tonic, astringent, and cooling, and prescribes it in heart disease and for those purposes for which astringent are generally applied.

Psoriasis Salbe tar recommends it to be given in milk, treacle or water when used internally, or as a ghrita medicinal butter made with the decoction and powder of the bark. Hindu source think that the Psoriasis Salbe tar has some special virtue in promoting the union of fractures, and the dispersion of ecchymosis when given internally.

It is considered to be Asmari-hara, or lithontripic, and a reference to the chemical composition will show that the ash of the bark contains an extraordinarily large proportion of calcium carbonate.

Externally it is used in the form of an astringent wash to ulcers. Milchige, Manilkara hexandra Roxb. Dubard - Breiapfelbaum: Perhaps a species of Mimusops. This tree is a native of the mountainous parts of the Circars ; it is never cultivated, nor have I seen it near cultivated places. It flowers Essig bei Psoriasis the hot, and beginning of the wet season. It is also much used by washermen to beetle their cloths on, being remarkably heavy and tough.

The fruit is eatable. The dried fruit is known as Kakadia in Guzerat, and the fresh fruit is sold in the streets in Bombay under the name of Ahmaddbadi-mewa.

It is a handsome tree, von juckende Haut der unteren Gliedmaßen After rigid branches and broad wedge-shaped leaves, and is often found planted in click the following article near Mahometan towns and buildings.

The ripe fruit is eaten both fresh and dried, and the bark which much resembles that of M. Elengi is used medicinally on account of its astringent properties. Http:// the Concan the white milky juice, which exudes when Psoriasis Salbe tar tree is wounded, is made into a paste with the leaves of Cassia Fistula and seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum, and applied as a click at this page to boils.

The seeds yield an oil which, according to Dr. Mootooswamy, is used as a demulcent, emollient, tonic and alterative in South India. It flowers during the hot season ; the fruit is edible, and large. The leaves ground and mixed with the root of Curcuma and ginger are used as cataplasm for Psoriasis Salbe tar. The tree is extensively cultivated in China and Malabar on account of its acid and esculent fruit, which is said to increase the appetite.

The leaves boiled in gingely oil and added to the pulverised barks are reckoned a good remedy in Beriberi— Rheede. The seeds yield an oil which is applied to the eyes in ophthalmia, and also internally as an anthelmintic.

Delile - Zachunbaum - Desert Date Balanitaceae Bis 10 m hoher, dorniger Baum. Delile - Zachunbaum - Desert Date 1: Delile - Zachunbaum - Desert Date. Delile - Zachunbaum - Desert Date [Wight Icones I, Tab. In Egypt it was also a symbol of farewell and hope given to dying people. The seeds are found along with other fruit seeds in the Psoriasis Salbe tar tombs. Latin writers also notice the tree being sacred to Isis, and Pliny 15, 13, says that Alexander gave orders that the victors should be crowned with it in the games which he instituted Psoriasis Salbe tar honour of Perseus at Memphis.

The fruit appears to have been occasionally confounded by the ancients with the Persica or peach, as it is sometimes described as edible. Baillon says that in Egypt the ripe fruit is called "desert date" and the unripe "Egyptian myrobalan.

In Senegambia the leaves are used Psoriasis Salbe tar a vermifuge, and the roots and fruit as a purgative. Another name for Psoriasis Salbe tar fruit is Gauri-tvac, which seems to connect it with the worship of Gauri or Isani, the Indian goddess of abundance, the earth, the sakti or power of Isvara or Mahadeva, in whose honour bombs made with the shell are exploded. In all parts of India a boat is used as described by Herodotus in the Isis worship at Busiris, and by Tacitus in the Ertha worship among the Suevi in Germany.

At the Ganpati festival in India, Gauri is worshipped in the form of a cornucopoeia-shaped bouquet of Psoriasis Salbe tar and flowers, and a similar emblem appertained to the Demeter or Ceres of the Greeks. Gauri also holds in her hand a Lotus flower as emblematic of reproduction. The leaves of Balanites are the Hingupatri of modern Sanskrit writers, but the true Hingu-patri was doubtless the Asafoetida leaf.

In the Concan and in other parts of India where this tree is unknown, the oil for the Guru-upasana ceremony is obtained from Terminalia Catappa, a tree which is not a native of any part of India except perhaps the eastern borders of Bengal.

The bark, unripe fruit, and leaves are given to cattle as an anthelmintic. The physiological action of the bark and fruit is similar to that of the genus Polygala, and a few drops of a tincture of the fruit is as efficient an emulsifier as Tincture of Senega.

The kernel yields a bland fatty yellow tasteless oil, which is applied to burns and sores. On the Coromandel coast it is in flower and fruit almost the whole year. The kernels are fully as palatable as the best filberts, or even almonds, and I have every reason to Psoriasis Salbe tar they are equally wholesome, and visit web page. The tree is highly Psoriasis Salbe tar, few surpassing it in elegance and beauty.

The wood is also useful. The Psoriasis Salbe tar, known Psoriasis Salbe tar country almonds, might probably be used as a substitute for the officinal almond. They yield upwards of fifty per cent of pure bland oiL After being kept for some time, this oil deposits a large proportion of stearine. The oil which is expressed from the seeds is edible and pleasant- tasted. To extract it, the fruit is gathered and allowed to dry in the sun for a few days, when the kernels are cleaned, and bruised in a mill.

Six seers of almonds will produce 3 pucka seers of oil. The colour is a deep straw. It is very like Europe almond-oil both in taste and smell, but becomes turbid by keeping. It only requires care and attention in its link to render it of greater commercial value and importance.

The timber is light but lasting, and is useful for many purposes. The this web page and leaves yield a Hack pigment, with which the natives dye their Psoriasis Salbe tar and make Indian ink.

The levers of Pakottahs are usually made of the timber Psoriasis Salbe tar this tree. Tussah-silk worms feed on the leaves. Rheede says the tree bears fruit three times a year on the Malabar coast. It is a native Psoriasis Salbe tar the Moluccas. The fruit is an oval, compressed, smooth drupe, with two elevated grooved margins; it is about 2 inches long and of a dull purple colour when ripe, the pulp being bright purple. The nut is rough, hard and the kernel which is about half the size of an almond and nearly cylindrical, is in Psoriasis Salbe tar use in Bengal, amongst Europeans under the name of "leaf nut.

It is of a pale yellowish colour and entirely inodorous. The bark is astringent, and has been recommended for internal administration in the form of decoction as a remedy for gonorrhoea and leucorrhcea. The tree yields a gum of the Bassora type. Birke, Betula utilis D. The bark is used. This bark is well-known as the material upon which the ancient Sanskrit manuscripts of Northern India are written. The lines run always parallel to the narrow side of the leaf, and the MSS.

The Himalayas seem to contain an inexhaustible supply of birch-bark, which in Cashmere and other hill countries is used both instead of Psoriasis Salbe tar by the shop-keepers in the bazaars, and for lining the roofs of houses in Psoriasis Salbe tar to make them water-tight. To give an idea of the quantities which are brought into Srinagar, I may mention that on one single day I counted fourteen large barges Psoriasis Salbe tar birch-bark on the river, and that I have never moved about without seeing some boats laden with it.

Akbar introduced the manufacture of paper, and thus created an industry for which Cashmere is now famous in India. From that time the use of birch-bark for the purpose of writing was discontinued, and the method of preparing it has been lost. Salmuli, the Sanscrit Psoriasis Salbe tar see Asiat. This is one of the largest of our Indian trees and is found almost every where; Psoriasis Salbe tar the northern Circars, near the mountains, they grow to a greater size than I have seen them any where else, often about one hundred feet high, the trunk thick and ramous in proportion.

Flowering time, the end of winter, when the tree is totally destitute of leaves. The great numbers of very large, bright red flowers with which it is then covered, makes it remarkably conspicuous at a very great distance.

This and the former pentandrum, are the only species of this genus I have hitherto met with in India, except B. If this be not what Linnaeus calls B. He quotes Moul elavou of the Hortus Malabaricus for it; and at the same time points it out to be an American tree.

The wood is white, light and spongy, fit for very few purposes. In India the wool is used to stuff beds and pillows, and to put between the folds of quilted cloth. At the end of the cold season this tree is a Psoriasis Salbe tar remarkable object, being entirely destitute of leaves, and loaded with large, red, cup-shaped flowers, which are followed by egg-shaped, green capsules, containing numerous brown seeds having an average weight of th of a grain, and a quantity of fine Psoriasis Salbe tar cotton.

In some parts of India the root of the white silk-cotton tree Eriodendron anfractuosum is preferred for this purpose. This tree is the Lanifera arbor of Clusius, the pods of which were first brought to Holland about the end of Psoriasis Salbe tar 16th century; its cotton is the Capock fibre of the Dutch, and the tree, like the Bombax, yields a dark-coloured opaque gum, insoluble in water, which is used as an astringent in bowel complaints.

The natives regard E. In Madras the young fruits are dried and used as a demulcent and astringent. The gum of the Bombax is very astringent, and is used by both Hindus and Mahometans in diarrhoea, dysentery, and menorrhagia in doses of Psoriasis Salbe tar grains for an Psoriasis Salbe tar. This elegant, straight, sub-verticelled tree, seems to differ from the West India species, probably specifically; it is found in every part of India.

On the Coromandel coast, the Tamuls plant them about their temples. In Bengal, Psoriasis Salbe tar the winters are colder, the leaves drop off during the cold season. In February, when destitute of foliage, Psoriasis Salbe tar blossoms appear, and soon afterwards the leaves ; and the seed ripens in May. Galedupa arborea or Robinia mitis [L. Panigrahi - Pongamia [Bildquelle: Leaves deciduous at the Psoriasis Salbe tar of the cold season, and in about a month are succeeded by the new foliage.

Flowers during the hot season; and the seed ripens toward the dose of the year. The wood of this tree is Psoriasis Salbe tar, white, and firm; it serves for a variety of economical Psoriasis Salbe tar. Branches stuck in the ground to fence round some Cinnamon trees, grew readily ; grass and almost every thing else grows well under its shade The seeds yield an useful oil ; and cattle are fond of the leaves. It holds a high place as an application in scabies, herpes, and other Psoriasis Salbe tar diseases.

Dr Gibson asserts that he knows no article of the vegetable kingdom possessed of more marked properties in such cases than the above. The oil is much used as an embrocation in rheumatism. The oil is used Psoriasis Salbe tar lampsamong the poorer classes. The leaves are eaten by cattle, Psoriasis Salbe tar are valuable as a strong manure, especially for the sugar-cane. The seeds, leaves, and oil are used in Hindu medicine as a remedy for skin diseases and rheumatism and to destroy Psoriasis Salbe tar in sores.

Chakradatta mentions a paste made of the seeds along with those of Cassia Tora and the root of Saussurea Lappa as a useful application to skin diseases. Rheede notices the use of a bath prepared with the leaves, Psoriasis Salbe tar remove rheumatic pains; and they appear to be in general use for this purpose. Ainslie says that the juice of the root is used for bin Psoriasis auf die Ellbogen und Hände diesem foul ulcers, and closing fistulous soles.

He also notices the oil and its use in itch and rheumatism. Gibson speaks very highly of the oil as a remedy in scabies, herpes, and other cutaneous diseases of a similar nature; it should be mixed with an equal quantity of lemon juice and be well shaken, when it forms a rich yellow liniment which we have used successfully in porrigo capitis, pityriasis and psoriasis.

In leprosy the natives prescribe the leaves with those of Plumbago, along with some pepper and salt, to be powdered and given in curds. Karanja is also an ingredient in several complicated prescriptions for epilepsy and abdominal enlargements. Mootooswamy mentions the use of the juice of the root with cocoanut milk and lime water as a remedy for gonorrhoea in Tanjore, and of the leaves Ponga-illai, Tamil in flatulency, dyspepsia, and diarrhoea.

He has noticed the use of the flowers as a remedy for diabetes, and of the pods worn round the neck as a protective against whooping cough. Evers has seen Psoriasis Salbe tar seeds administered internally for the last named affection. Psoriasis Salbe tar oil is in general use amongst the agricultural classes as a lamp oil. The plants reared from seed from the West Indies, proved to be exactly the same. The seed is a powerful Psoriasis Salbe tar. They are given in cases of intermittent fevers mixed with spices in the form of powder.

Pounded and mixed with castor-oil, they are applied externally in hydrocele. At Amboyna the seeds are considered as anthelmintic, and the root tonic in dyspepsia. In Cochin China the leaves are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue, and the root astringent. In Scotland, where they are frequently thrown upon the sea-shore, they Psoriasis Salbe tar known as Molucca beans. Piddington has detected in the nuts, oil, starch, sugar, and resin. Ibn Sina says that its medicinal properties resemble those of the Peony.

Rumphius, who calls it Frutex globulorum, says that the seeds are vermifuge, and the leaves, roots and seeds emmenagogue, deobstruent and febrifuge.

In Persia and India the seeds are considered to be hot and dry, useful for dispersing swellings, restraining hemorrhage, and keeping off infectious diseases. Half a seed rubbed up with several cloves is said go here relieve the pain of colic, and with long pepper to be a valuable remedy for malarious fevers.

The seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally, and at the same time applied externally, spread upon castor-oil leaves. They are also given internally in leprosy, and are thought to Psoriasis Salbe tar anthelmintic.

The oil in which they have been boiled for a long time is applied Psoriasis Salbe tar wounds to promote cicatrization. Necklaces of the seeds strung upon red silk are worn by pregnant women as a charm to prevent abortion, and are hung upon trees to prevent their fruit falling off. Ainslie notices the use of the seeds in conjunction with spice as a tonic by native practitioners, also their use as an external application to hydrocele. He besides draws attention to the root and leaves as having similar properties.

In the Concan the Psoriasis Salbe tar of the leaves with yellow zedoary and Butea frondosa seeds is given to children for intestinal Die Behandlung Indikationen Psoriasis. Four tolas of the juice is given as an antiperiodic in fever, and the seeds with gur molasses in hysteria.

In the seeds were made official in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antiperiodic, and in the compound powder also official the native form of administration with black pepper has been adopted. From the notes at the end of the Parmacopoeia it will be seen that the general tenor of the reports from medical officers in India is in favour of the antiperiodic and tonic effects of the remedy.

In Gambia, where they are called "Coorie seeds," the expressed oil is used for ear discharges, and a decoction of the roasted seed for consumption or asthma. The specific name of Psoriasis Salbe tar plant is derived from the word Bunduk, an Arabic form of the Persian Finduk. The Arabs also call the seeds Hajar-el-ukab, or "eagle stones. Seemingly varieties of the Bonduc. A large timber tree, a native of the Circar mountains.

It flowers during the cold season. Leaves deciduous about the close of the wet season ; they come out again in March. The first part of the flowers that appears, is the anthers ; they are then reddish ; next the calyx increases, and becomes visible to the naked eye, but is at all times small, and unless looked for, is click at this page observed.

The wood of this tree is reckoned of a good quality by the natives, and is employed for a variety of uses. The forks of the branches are used by the natives to protect their straw against cattle. A medical plant so called. Tecomella Psoriasis Salbe tar ist ein Strauch oder kleiner Baum, dessen Sprossachse unterschiedlich Psoriasis Salbe tar sein kann. Die Staubbeutel sind unbehaart, ihre Theken stehen auseinander.

Der Fruchtknoten ist langgestreckt-lanzettlich, feinschuppig besetzt und besitzt eine Vielzahl an Samenanlagen. Sie sind leicht vierrippig, besitzen flache Klappen. Die Art kommt von der Arabischen Halbinsel bis ins westliche Indien vor. Klaus Kubitzki, Joachim W. Lamiales except Acanthaceae Including AvicenniaceaeSpringer Verlag, Mimosa catechu Khayar L.

Khadira in Sanscrit and Kudhir the name of the extracts. The Psoriasis Salbe tar five species are nearly allied to each other, and require no small degree of attention to point out their differences in a Psoriasis Salbe tar definition.

Probably they are equally fit for yielding the extract now called Catechu. Flowering time the hot and rainy seasons. The seed ripens after the rains.

It is now better understood as one of the Psoriasis Salbe tar of Catechu prepared in India—the word being derived from cate, a tree, and chu, juice. It is extracted from the unripe pods and old high-coloured wood, and the mode of preparation in some of the northern parts of India is minutely described by Dr Royle. The chips of the inner wood are put into an earthen pot over the fire; they are then boiled, and the clean liquor is strained off; when of sufficient consistence it is poured into clay moulds.

This is usually of a pale-red colour, and in quadrangular pieces. Ross found it very useful in scurvy, both locally applied to the gums, as well as on the constitution. Finely-powdered Catechu has also been successfully used in ointments, Psoriasis Salbe tar with other ingredients, in the treatment of obstinate ulcers and leprous affections. It is occasionally mixed with Psoriasis Salbe tar to increase its adhesion, and is also, in conjunction with certain oils, applied to beams, to Psoriasis Salbe tar them against the white ants.

Catechu contains a greater proportion of tannin than other astringent substances, and it has been found that 1 lb. The manufactured article is brought down in considerable quantities from Berar and Nepaul, and thence to Calcutta, from whence it is exported to Europe. Other kinds of Catechu are prepared Psoriasis Salbe tar India, the commonest of which is that from the nut of the Areca palm F. As a timber, the wood of the tree is less hard and durable than that of other species of Psoriasis Salbe tar. It is of a red colour, heavy, close-grained, and brittle.

It polishes well, and resists the attacks of white ants. It is used for agricultural purposes, sugar-mills, and pestles. The dark acacia catechu is in flat cakes of a dark brown colour and shining fracture, or in square cakes known as box catechu.

The light catechu is a porous earthy-looking substance, somewhat lamineted and much Psoriasis Salbe tar friable than the dark: Dark catechu is made by evaporating a decoction of the wood until it becomes solid; in making the light kind please click for source inspissation is stopped at a certain point, and the catechu is obtained as a deposit upon twigs which are placed in the liquid extract.

The Hindus consider Psoriasis Salbe tar to be Psoriasis Salbe tar, cooling, and digestive, useful in relaxed conditions of the throat, mouth and gums, also in cough and diarrhoea. Externally they use it as an astringent and cooling application to ulcers, boils, and eruptions on the skin.

Mahometan writers describe dark and light catechu, and their use in medicine for the purposes already mentioned. An account of the introduction of catechu into Europe will be found in the Pharmacographia.

Other kinds of the Psoriasis Salbe tar which are imported into India by sea will be found described in the article upon Gambier. The gum of A. In the Concans the juice of the fresh bark is given with Asafoetida in haemoptysis, and the flowering tops with cummin, milk and sugar in gonorrhoea. Khersal, or natural catechu, is obtained from cavities in the wood, and Psoriasis Salbe tar in small irregular fragments like little bits of very pale catechu mixed with chips of reddish wood.

This drug is collected by men who split firewood, and fetches a high price, as it Psoriasis Salbe tar only occasionally met with; it has a sweetish astringent taste, and under the microscope is seen to be composed of minute needle-shaped crystals.

When placed in water the colouring matter of the particles of wood mixed with the drug colour the water red, but the khersal remains undissolved; in boiling water it is completely soluble, but is thrown down in conglomerate masses of small needle-shaped crystals upon the water cooling; it is also soluble in rectified spirit, and is deposited in the same form on the spirit evaporating.

In native practice this substance is valued as a remedy in relaxed conditions of the throat. A similar substance has been brought to our notice by the Conservator of Forests for Malabar. It is a yellow crystalline deposit found in the wood of the Poon spar Callophyllum tomentosum. Wilford, belong to article source Adenanihera aculeala.

A native of every part of India. It flowers in the cold season. The wood is very hard and tough, and is much used for ship-knees, tent-pegs, and similar purposes.

The flowers distilled yield a delicious perfume. The gum collected in the neighbourhood of Psoriasis Salbe tar and at Poona in the Deccan is only slightly soluble. On stirring up with water it partially dissolves, but after remaining a short time undisturbed it Psoriasis Salbe tar. The strained Psoriasis Salbe tar is precipitated or gelatinized by neutral and basic acetate of lead, perchloride of iron, and silicate of soda, but not by borax.

Under a high power of the microscope, the gum is seen to be thickly interwoven with the minute hyphse and fructifications of a fungus probably belonging to the Ascomycetes. The fungus is composed of a brown parenchyma confining oil globules, and bearing oval-shaped gonidia divided into two cells by a transverse septum. The gonidia are supported on hyaline stems sterigmata arising from the hyphae. Debris of cells containing monoclinic crystals and interwoven with fungi are occasionally met with.

A very common tree about Calcutta, and over Bengal, and is remarkably conspicuous on account of its white bark. Flowering time the rainy season. Psoriasis Salbe tar is a large concave gland above the base of the petiole, and two or three between the last two or three pairs of pinnae. Of this Psoriasis Salbe tar useful plant, we have several varieties cultivated in India, some of them growing to the size of a pretty large tree, and of many years duration ; I have not seen any variety with Psoriasis Salbe tar fruit.

On the leaves Psoriasis Salbe tar domesticated Arrindy silk-worm Phalacena Cynthia, are fed. See Psoriasis Salbe tar of the Linnaean Society, vol. The oil of the former differs from the medicinal Castor-oil in having a heavy disagreeable smell, probably owing to the seeds being toasted previous to boiling, for the purpose of extracting the oil.

The colour, too, is darker, and the nature is more gross. The real Castor- oil used in medicine is from the small-seeded variety.

The lamp- oil of the former, like the Castor-oil, is of a purgative nature, but chiefly employed for lamps and in horse-medicine. The mode Psoriasis Salbe tar preparation is given in the report on the fixed Psoriasis Salbe tar oils sent to the Madras Exhibition as Psoriasis Salbe tar The roasting process, however, gives it a deeper red colour and an empyreumatic odour.

The price of this oil varies in different parts of the country from Ks. The plant is supposed to be indigenous to Barbary. In hot countries it is a perennial, in cold ones an annual or biennial plant. The skin of the seeds consists of three coverings, and it was for a long time believed even by Humboldt that the embryo of the seeds was the seat of the purgative principle alone, and that if that part were removed the seeds might safely be eaten.

It has now, however, been proved, that although the active principle may exist in a greater quantity in the embryo, yet that it is found more or less throughout the entire seed. Other seeds, too, are frequently mixed with them.

The application of heat was formerly resorted to in the extraction of the oil, and is still occasionally used, though quite unnecessary. The following is the process given by Ainslie for making a fine kind of Castor-oil for domestic purposes: The nuts are then to be dried in the sun for three days, after which to be well bruised in a mortar.

Add to the nuts thus bruised ten measures of water, and put on to boil, stirring it all the time until the oil appears at the top ; then carefully strained off and being allowed to cool, it will be fit for use.

The quantity of nuts mentioned in the above recipe should yield one bottle of oil. If cocoa-nut water be used instead of common water, the oil has a paler and finer colour. Another way of preparing the oil is given in the report of the Juries on the fixed vegetable oils sent Psoriasis Salbe tar the Madras Exhibition.

They then receive a slight pressure Psoriasis Salbe tar an oblong mould, which gives a uniform shape and density to the packets of seed. The oil thus procured is received in clean tin pans, and water in the proportion of a pint to a gallon of oil being added, the whole is boiled until the water has evaporated: The oil is Psoriasis Salbe tar filtered through blanket, flannel, or American drill, and Psoriasis Salbe tar into cans for exportation.

It is usually of a light straw colour, sometimes approaching to a greenish tinge. The cleaned seeds yield from 47 to Psoriasis Salbe tar per cent of oil, worth in England from 4d.

In France the fresh Psoriasis Salbe tar are bruised and then put into a cold press. The produce is equal to one-third of the seeds employed, and the oil possesses all its natural qualities. The oils made in France and Italy are much weaker than Psoriasis Salbe tar procured from tropical countries.

Another mode of obtaining the oil is to macerate the bruised seeds in cold alcohol, by which 6 oz. Castor-oil is soluble in pure sulphuric ether and alcohol. It also combines easily with alkaline leys, by which is formed a test of its purity. It is one of the best ways of overcoming the repulsive taste by mixing the oil with an alkaline ley, which alters the appearance of the oil, but does not destroy its purgative powers. Other ways of rendering the oil less unpleasant are by using lime-juice, orange-peel, coffee, gin, or an emulsion of the yolk of egg.

Castor-oil is a mild laxative medicine, and among the Hindoos is used as a remedy in cutaneous affections externally applied. It is particularly recommended in rheumatism, lumbago, and habitual constipation, piles, and other diseases of the Psoriasis Salbe tar. Alone or mixed with turpentine it is efficacious in expelling worms.

Air should always be excluded to prevent rancidity, although when rancid it may be purified by calcined magnesia. The bark of the root Psoriasis Salbe tar a just click for source purgative, and when made into a ball about the size of a lime, in conjunction with chillies and tobacco-leaves, is an excellent remedy for gripes in horses.

In Jamaica the oil is considered a valuable external remedy in cramps, pains arising from cold. The leaves heated and Psoriasis Salbe tar to the breasts, and kept on for 12 or 24 hours, will not fail to bring milk Psoriasis Salbe tar child-birth. The same applied to the abdomen will promote the menstrual discharge. The seeds are used by the dyers to mix with colours and render them permanent. Both root and oil are described as purgative and useful in costiveness, flatulence, rheumatism, fever and inflammatory affections; on account of its efficacy in rheumatism the plan bears the synonym of Vatari vata-ari.

The seeds freed from the husks and germs, and boiled in milk and water, form a decoction which is given in rheumatism; a decoction of the root with carbonate of potash is also prescribed, and most compound medicines given in rheumatic and neuralgic affections contain the root.

When applied to the abdomen they are popularly thought to promote the menstrual flow; in Govardhanathe halikavadhu, or "peasant woman," is represented as lying in pain upon the leaves of the Eranda. In the proverbial language of the Indians the Castor plant is emblematic of frailty; they say: The Arabs appear to have first become acquainted with the tree in India, as they call the seeds Simsim-el-hindi, "Indian Sesamum," and the plant Khirvaa, a word which signifies any weak or frail plant; the properties they attribute to it are also those mentioned by Sanskrit writers.

Again, Psoriasis Salbe tar the Saptasataka of Psoriasis Salbe tar, we find the large and swelling breasts of the peasant girl likened to the Eranda leaf, and in Arabic we have the expression. Aitchison notices its cultivation round the borders of fields in the latter province, and in the Harirud District, for the sake of the oil which is used as a lamp oil, and says that the peasantry are unacquainted with its purgative properties.

He also notices Castor oil and its medicinal use. It is the Psoriasis Salbe tar or Cicus of Pliny 15, 7"a tree Salben für Psoriasis grows in Egypt in great abundance ; by some it is known as croton, by others as sili, and Psoriasis Salbe tar others, again, as wild sesamum: Eaten with food the oil is Psoriasis Salbe tar, but it is very useful for burning in lamps.

The Jews and Abyssinian Christians say that it was under this tree that Jonah sat, but in the English version the Hebrew word " Kikajon " is translated "gourd. Mahometan medical writers describe two kinds, red and white: They consider the oil a powerful resolvent and purgative of cold humors, and prescribe it in palsy, asthma, colds, colic, flatulence, rheumatism, dropsy and amenorrhea ; of the seeds, 10 kernels rubbed down with honey are sufficient as a purge.

A poultice of the crushed seeds is used to reduce gouty and Psoriasis Salbe tar swellings, and inflammation of the breasts of women during lactation. The leaves have similar properties, but in a less degree. The root-bark Psoriasis Salbe tar used as a purgative and alterative in chronic enlargements and skin diseases; it is also applied externally. In modern medicine Castor oil is much valued as a non-irritant purgative ; a drop is sometimes dropped into the eye to allay irritation, and, strange to say, the leaves are applied locally in Europe to promote the secretion of milk, whereas in India the native practice of applying them to stop the secretion of milk is recognised in the Government Psoriasis Salbe tar under European superintendence.

A fluid extract of the leaves has also been in Europe as a lactagogue. Wann die Frucht recht zeitig ist, so kriegt sie Risse, daraus springen die Samen mit Gewalt. Nachdem es an einem Orte steht, wird es auch hoch und starck: Sie purgieren alle Feuchtigkeiten aus dem Leibe mit heftiger Gewalt. Es purgiret, wann man auch nur damit den Magen und den Unterleib bestreichet: Das Holtz und das Laub geben einen weissen Saft, wie Milch.

Es giebet allerhand Click here dieser indianischen Pinien. Man soll diejenigen erwehlen, welche frisch Psoriasis Salbe tar gantz sind, schwer, von Farbe grau oder gelblicht, von unangenehmen, sehr scharffen Geschmack: Sie purgieren heftiglich von unten, und auch zuweilen von oben. Sie werden zur Wassersucht gebraucht, zum Schlage und zur Schlafsucht. Druce - Schraubenbohne - Mesquite: Druce - Schraubenbohne - Mesquite Roxburg: Druce - Schraubenbohne - Mesquite [Bildquelle.

Somi, Wilford in Asiat. Mimosa farnesiana, a plant he never intended for Sami. Psoriasis Salbe tar grows to the size of a tree. It is a native of most parts of the coast of Coromandel, chiefly on low lands at a considerable distance from the sea ; it is also found in some parts of Hindoostan.

It flowers during the cold and beginning of the hot seasons. The pod of this tree is the only part used; it is about an inch in circumference, and from six to twelve long ; when ripe, brown and smooth, containing besides the seeds a large quantity of a Psoriasis Salbe tar mealy substance which the natives eat. Its taste is sweetish and agreeable ; it may therefore be compared to the Spanish Hautinfektion Juckreiz, or Locust tree Ceratonia siliqua.

The timber is strong, hard, straight-grained, and easily worked. The schleich Schritt Psoriasis contain a great quantity of mealy sweetish substance, which the natives eat. Psoriasis Salbe tar is common throughout the Madras Presidency.

The timber is dark red, close- grained, hard, and durable, superior to teak in strength, and is much used for building and other purposes. It is of very slow growth. With water it forms a rather dark coloured tasteless mucilage of about the same viscosity as gum arabic. The solution is precipitated by the normal acetate of lead and gelatinized by the basic acetate, also by ferric chloride, borax and alkaline silicates. This is a valuable gum, and appears to resemble, except in its behaviour to reagents, the Mezquite gum of Mexico and Texas, Psoriasis Salbe tar is now coming Psoriasis Salbe tar use in America.

Berauscher, Catunaregam spinosa Thunb. Vangueria spinosaR[oxb. Shrubby, armed with decussate spines. A small tree or large bush ; a native of Bengal and also of China, I presume, as just click for source are some plants in the Botanic garden brought thence. Flowering time the beginning of the hot season Psoriasis Salbe tar fruit ripe in three or four months afterwards.

The fruit is eaten by the natives. Its flowers come exceedingly near to those of my Canthium parviflorum, as does also the whole habit of the plant.

It is a small tree or large bush, common in many parts of India, from Northern Bengal to Canara, which bears cymes of greenish flowers ; the fruit is a drupe, the size of a cherry, of a yellow colour when ripe, subglobose or turbinate, smooth and fleshy, pyrenes 4 to 5, woody, Psoriasis Salbe tar. Don - Himalaya-Zeder - Deodar: In Bengal, Uvaria longifolia ; but properly seems to be a pine or fir. Don - Himalaya-Zeder [Bildquelle: Devadaroo, or Devdar, is the name the tree is known by amongst the natives where it grows.

A tree of great size, a native of the mountains north of Rohilcund. It differs from P. Larix in many respects, but most conspicuously in being destitute of the bractes which project beyond the scales of the strobile or cone.

The tree is so exceedingly replete with resin, as Psoriasis Salbe tar yield a very large proportion of tar. A manufactory of that article was lately begun, near the skirts of the Psoriasis Salbe tar mountains by Mr. Extract of a letter from that Gentleman, Mr. Gott, dated Kosupoor, 2nd Novemberdescribing the Devdar pine.

It does not appear to delight in a situation on the summit of mountains ; on the contrary it grows in valleys, and most abundantly in plains, on the side of large, or tops of small hills that are but little exposed.

Its height is described to exceed twenty feet, and its bulk in proportion, from four to five feet in diameter; it grows very straight, and Psoriasis Salbe tar regularly tapering as a fishing rod, with branches down to the ground. Dr Gibson regards it as very effectual in this latter disease when given in large doses. It always acts as a diaphoretic, but is found very variable in its action,—in some cases a drachm causing vomiting; in others Psoriasis Salbe tar an ounce inducing only slight nausea.

Dr Royle states that the leaves and twigs of the deodar are brought down to the plains, being much employed in native medicine. Another species is the P. It is known by the native names Cheersullah, Sarul, and Thansa. The natives of Upper India obtain from it both tar and turpentine.

The former is said to be equal to that obtained by a more refined process in Europe, and the turpentine is stated merely to require attention to render it equal to the imported article. Dr Cleghorn has furnished some valuable remarks on the manufacture of tar from this tree as well as from P. He considers it fully equal to Swedish tar. Large forests of it exist on the Himalaya slopes, and especially in the Punjaub, along the banks of the Ravee, Beas, and other rivers.

In the Chenab forests, too, they are plentiful. The range within which the Deodar is found growing spontaneously extends from about to feet above the sea, though it Psoriasis Salbe tar occurs so low as feet, and grows at a disadvantage at the highest elevation.

Previous to the establishment of the Forest Conservancy, vast quantities of these valuable timber- Psoriasis Salbe tar were recklessly destroyed, and it has been found desirable to form plantations for fresh plants, which, in the Punjaub especially, have been carried out on a large scale. This diminution of the numbers formerly known to exist caused the Government to limit the number to be felled annually, and rules for this object are now strictly observed.

Prices for good Deodar in the Punjaub, increasing Psoriasis Salbe tar the case of logs under 20 feet in length, averaged from about eight annas in to one rupee per cubic foot Psoriasis Salbe tar For the greater lengths, from 20 Psoriasis Salbe tar 30 feet, which are very scarce, the rate of eleven annas has now risen at Lahore to Ks.

He found one beautiful forest of pure Deodar, which seemed to spring up with great vigour wherever it had a chance, and thousands upon thousands of young seedlings coming up as thick as corn in a field. In the Kotee forest the Deodar growth see more perfectly extraordinary. Two of the old stumps, which were of huge size, though imperfect, showed that the trees in the twenty-one years of their life had attained a diameter of timber of 12 and 13 inches respectively.

In another forest, in Lokan, there were counted in one spot, in about 4 acres, between and first-class trees of 6 feet girth, none of them under feet in height, while many must have approached feet The estimated contents of these nine forests of Joonsar Bawur were 34, first-class and 37, second-class Deodars. The above will Psoriasis Salbe tar give some idea of the resources of these forests.

These are exclusive of Psoriasis Salbe tar P. The trees must Psoriasis Salbe tar numbered by hundreds of thousands, many of them of a huge size. The same exists on the left bank of the Tonse, but Psoriasis Salbe tar up the river the Cheel P. I believe, from inquiries, that if 15, or 20, logs can be got down to the river, there would be no difficulty Psoriasis Salbe tar sawing up a lakh of sleepers per annum in these forests.

It may be interesting to mention here that the first conifer found in Southern India Podocarpus was discovered by Major Beddome in abundant on the Tinnevelly Hills. It is chiefly used in combination with other medicines, as in the following diuretic mixture: To be given in ascites, Chakradatta. The wood is also ground to a paste with water and applied to the temples to relieve headache.

A tar Kilan-ka-tel made by destructive distillation of the wood is a favourite remedy for skin diseases in Northern India; it is given internally in doses of about one drachm, and also applied locally. From the Sanskrit name Devadaru of this Psoriasis Salbe tar, it must not be confounded with the wood of Erythroxylon monogynum, known in Tamil as Devadarum, and which, on account of its odour, is called "Bastard Sandal. Haji Zein-el-Attar states that its juice is used in Harrun Afghanistan to tan leather he Psoriasis Salbe tar alludes to the tar which is used in the Punjab to dress the inflated skins used for crossing rivers.

It has an agreeable terebinthinate odour. In the Vedas, a chief of the evil beings or spirits living in the shades: So he is regent of the north, and the keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the treasures of the earth, besides nine particular Nidhis, Psoriasis Salbe tar treasures, the nature of which is not well understood. He is Psoriasis Salbe tar as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs and only eight teeth.

His body is covered with ornaments. He receives no worship. The name Ku-vera, as also the variant Ku-tanu, signifies vile body, referring to his ugliness. A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. Wight Icones IV, Tab. Patali the Sanscrit name. A middle sized tree, a native of Bengal, and of the southern parts of the Coromandel coast.

Flowering time the hot season. The tree is sacred to Durga, the wife of Siva. Mootoosawmy says that in Tanjore the flowers are taken in the form of a confection as an aphrodisiac. The flowers pounded with honey are said to stop troublesome hiccough, and the ashes of the bark are used in preparing alkaline ley and caustic pastes.

The bark is in use throughout India from its being one of the ingredients in the Dasamula or "ten barks. In parts of India where this tree is not found, various substitutes are allowed to be used. In Malabar and in the Concan S. A fragrant seed so named. A native of Silhet and Chittagong. A shrub, from four to eight feet Psoriasis Salbe tar length. Kurz - Damoklesbaum - Midnight Horror: Psoriasis Salbe tar - Damoklesbaum - Midnight Horror [Bildquelle: Shyonaka, and Mundooka-purna, two of its Sanscrit names.

Is EDAS Psoriasis of the tallest trees on the coast, grows up amongst the mountains chiefly. Flowering- time the beginning of the wet season. Seed ripens in January and February.

Trunk very straight, and very high, but thin in proportion. The seeds are numerous, membranaceous, surrounded with a large, delicate, membranaceous wing. The leaves are supra-decompound, and from Psoriasis Salbe tar to six feet long. Sarangadhara recommends the juice of Syonaka Ist Psoriasis bei Hautkrebs kann from the roasted bark in combination with Mocharas see Bomhax malabaricum as a remedy in diarrhoea and dysentery.

He also says that the root-bark boiled in Sesamum oil is a good application in otorrhoea. The bark is much used by the agricultural classes as an application to the sore-backs of draught cattle. It is ground to a Psoriasis Salbe tar with water and an equal proportion of turmeric, and rubbed on the part. Evers states that the Gonds call the tree Jaimangal, and that they employ a decoction of the bark as a discutient application to rheumatic swellings.

Twenty-eight cases of acute rheumatism were treated with this drug, and in all the results have been most satisfactory. The dose of the powder is from 5 to 15 grains, thrice daily; of the infusion 1 ounce of bark to 10 ounces of boiling water an ounce three times a day. Combined with opium it forms a much more sudorific Psoriasis Salbe tar the compound powder of ipecacuanha.

The drug does not possess Psoriasis Salbe tar febrifuge properties. A pretty large tree, found cultivated in most parts of India, and also wild in forests. Flowers during the beginning of the hot season; fruit ripe in eight Psoriasis Salbe tar nine months after. The wood of this tree is hard and durable particularly under water. The bark is strongly astringent ; the natives employ it to cure diarrhoeas, and to tan leather. The fruit is at all times Psoriasis Salbe tar of exceedingly sharp juice; it is eaten raw by the natives, although to an European, the taste is disagreeably acrid.

They are pickled, and made into preserve with sugar, and also baked in tarts; by these means they are more reconcilable to our taste. They are also used in diabetes. Infusion of the leaves is applied to sore eyes.

Bark of the root mixed with honey is applied to aphthous inflammations of the mouth. The bark of the tree itself is astringent, and is used for tanning purposes. It is medicinally used in diarrhea. The fruit is occasionally pickled, or Psoriasis Salbe tar in sugar. When dry it is said to be gently laxative. Psoriasis aus Es sieht wie Fußnägel the latter state the decoction is employed in fevers, and mixed with Psoriasis Salbe tar and drunk in vertigo.

source young leaves mixed with sour milk are given by the natives in dysentery. In Travancore the natives Psoriasis Salbe tar the young branches into the wells to impart Psoriasis Salbe tar pleasant flavour to the water, especially if it be impure from the accumulation of vegetable matter or other causes.

Antiscorbutic virtues have been attributed to the fruits, which are known as the Emblic Myrobalans. The flowers are employed by the Hindoo doctors for their supposed refrigerant and aperient qualities.

The bark partakes of the astringency of the fruit. Boss prepared, by decoction and evaporation, from the root, an astringent extract equal to catechu both for medicine and the arts. It is Psoriasis Salbe tar both fresh and dried; in the former condition it is considered to be refrigerant, diuretic and laxative; in the latter, astringent.

It is pickled Psoriasis Salbe tar the natives, and, on account of a peculiar flavour which it imparts, some of the forest tribes eat it before drinking water. A sherbet of the fruit, sweetened, with sugar or honey, is a favourite cooling drink for sick people; it is said Psoriasis Salbe tar be diuretic.

A country-side prescription for biliousness in the Concan is Avala, 4 massas, to be soaked all night in water, and in the morning to be pounded and mixed Psoriasis Salbe tar a quarter seer of milk and flavoured with wie Alkohol wirkt sich auf die Psoriasis and cumin. Emblic myrobalans are an ingredient in many compound preparations described in Sanskrit works.

This preparation is given in jaundice, anaemia and dyspepsia, in doses of from 20 to 40 Psoriasis Salbe tar. Mahometan physicians esteem this myrobalan equally with the Hindus; they describe it as astringent, refrigerant, cardiacal, and a purifier of the humours of the body. It is much prescribed by them in fluxes, and is also applied externally on account of its cooling and astringent properties.

The Arabic Psoriasis Salbe tar is Amlaj, and the Persian Amala. Ainslie states that the flowers, which have Psoriasis Salbe tar odour resembling that of lemon peel, are supposed by the Vytians to have virtues of a cooling and aperient nature, and are prescribed in conjunction with other articles in the form of an electuary. In the Pharmacopoeia of India it is stated, upon the authority of Dr.

Ross, that the root by decoction and evaporation yields an astringent extract equal to catechu, both for medicinal purposes and in the arts; the chips of the wood or small branches thrown into impure or muddy water, according to the same authority, clear it effectually.

In the Concan the juice of the fresh bark, with honey and turmeric, is given in gonorrhoea. The fruit is collected in many parts of India. Die ersten heissen Myrobalani citrini, die gelben: Sie wachsen auf einem Baume, dessen Laub wie Weidenlaub aussiehet. Alle Mirobalanen purgiren linde und halten an, schier als wie die Rhabarber.

It is a native of the mountainous parts of the Circars, growing to be one of the largest trees, with an erect trunk, and a very large spreading head.

Flowering time the beginning of Psoriasis Salbe tar hot season. The kernels of the fruit are eaten by the natives ; they taste like filberts, but are reckoned intoxicating, when eaten in any quantity. Hereabouts they do not use any part Psoriasis Salbe tar the fruit in medicine, so far as I can learn. From wounds in the bark, large quantities of an insipid gum issues, it much resembles Gum arabic, is perfectly soluble in water, burns away in the flame of a candle, with little smell, into black gritty ashes.

The flowers have a strong offensive smell, not unlike those of Sterculia foetida. The kernel of the nut is said to intoxicate if eaten in any great quantity. Mixed with honey it is used in ophthalmia. The fruit in its dried state is larger than a gall-nut, but not so regular in shape. It is astringent in taste, and is tonic Psoriasis Salbe tar attenuant. It is also used in dropsy, diarrhoea, piles, and leprosy, as well as for coughs.

In large doses it becomes a narcotic poison. The produce of a single tree will sometimes sell for rupees. The fruit ripens about October, and consists of a nut enclosed in a thin exterior rind. It is used as an aperient, and also forms a dingy yellow dye. The fruit is exported by traders from the plains, who generally contract for each tree according source the produce it bears.

A single nut sometimes sells for a rupee. These fruits are procurable at a nominal cost throughout India; and when other aperients are not available, may safely be resorted to. Their astringency renders them valuable in the arts, as well as a substitute for galls for lotions, injections, and so on. Twining Diseases of Bengal gives a case of enlargement of the spleen where this medicine was used with the best effects.

Two varieties of T. The pulp of the fruit Beleric myrobalan Psoriasis Salbe tar considered by Hindu physicians to be astringent and laxative, and is prescribed with salt and long pepper in affections of the throat and chest.

As a constituent of the triphala three fruitsi. On account of its medicinal properties the tree bears the Sanskrit synonym of Anila-ghnaka, or "wind-killing". According to the Nighantas the kernels are narcotic. Mahometan writers describe Balilaj the beleric myrobalan as astringent, tonic, digestive, attenuant, and aperient, and useful as an astringent application to the eyes.

As long as the doctrines of the Arabian school prevailed, myrobalans Psoriasis Salbe tar used medicinally in Europe, Psoriasis Salbe tar being introduced by the Arabs from India.

According to Theophrastus, the outer cortical portion was visit web page to extract the oil, as that part only was sweet smelling. It is uncertain what this fruit was, but it appears to have Psoriasis Salbe tar something similar to that of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensisthe outer fleshy coating of which yields an oil of the consistence of butter, having a rather pleasant violet-like odour when fresh.

Both chebulic and beleric myrobalans are largely exported for tanning and dyeing. The exports from the whole of India were. Terminalia citrina [ Gaertn. Zengi, or Zunguhar, the black or Indian myrabolans, and for the Asiatic Psoriasis Salbe tar of the other varieties, see Dr. Flowering time in Bengal, the hot season. The seed ripens in November and December. The tender leaves, while scarce unfolded, are said to be punctured by an insect, and its eggs deposited therein, which by the extravasation of the sap, become enlarged into hollow galls Psoriasis Salbe tar various shapes and sizes, but rarely exceeding an inch in diameter.

They are powerfully astringent, and make as good ink as oak galls. They also yield the chintz painters on the Coast of Coromandel, their best and most durable yellow.

They are called Psoriasis Hot-Key the Tamuls Kadu kai, and by the Telingas Aldicai, and are very like the Faba Bengalensis of our Materia Medica.

The unripe dried fruits, which are the Indian or black myrobolan Kooroovillah-kadukai, Tam. They are very efficacious remedies in infantile diarrhoea, the dose for a child under a year old being one grain every three hours. It has been administered in many instances with the greatest benefit.

The price and supposed efficacy of the fruit increase with the size; one weighing six tolahs would cost about 20 rupees. It acts internally as aperient, externally as an astringent applicati6n to ulcers and skin diseases. The galls are found on the leaves, and are produced by insects puncturing the tender leaves. With them and alum the best and most durable yellow is dyed, and in conjunction with ferruginous mud, black is procured Psoriasis Salbe tar them. The fruit is very astringent, and on that account much used by the Hindoos in their arts and manufactures.

The timber is good, of a yellowish-brown colour. It is used for agricultural purposes and for building. It attains its full size in thirty years. Dutt Hindu Materia Medica informs us that Chebulic myrobalans, in Sanskrit: Haritaki, Abhaya, and Pathya, were highly extolled by the ancient Hindus as a powerful alterative and tonic.

A mythological origin has also been attributed to the tree. Indian writers describe seven varieties of Haritaki, which however are nothing more than the same fruit in different stages of Psoriasis Salbe tar. Very large fruit are considered particularly valuable, and fetch a fancy price.

Chebulic myrobalans are considered to be laxative, stomachic, tonic, and alterative. They are prescribed alone or in combination with Emblic and Beleric myrobalans in a vast number of diseases, chiefly those affecting the chest and abdomen. The three myrobalans together are called triphala or the three-fruits in Sanskrit. Myrobalans were known to the early Arabian writers, and through them to the Greek writer Actuarius, who mentions five kinds. Nicolas Myrepsicus also notices them.

The author of the Makhzan-el-Adwiya, on the subject of chebulic myrobalans, says that the very young fruit, about the size of cumin seeds, are called Psoriasis Salbe tar ; when about the size of a grain of barley, Halileh-i-jawi; when of the size of a raisin, Halileh-i-zangi or Halileh-i-hindi ; when half arrived at maturity and yellowish, Halileh-i-chini ; when still further advanced, Halileh-i-asfar; and Psoriasis Salbe tar, when quite mature, Halileh-i-kabuli.

Of these six varieties of chebulic myrobalans, the second, third, and last only are Psoriasis Salbe tar general use for medicinal purposes, the fourth and fifth, also known as Rangsri har or hirade, are chiefly used by tanners. The Arabs say,—"Halileh is in the Psoriasis Salbe tar like an intelligent housewife, who is a good manager of Psoriasis Salbe tar house.

Locally it is applied as an astringent. The first and second kind are supposed to have the same properties as the third in a less degree, Psoriasis Salbe tar the Psoriasis Salbe tar and fifth the same as the sixth in a less degree. The best way of administering myrobalans as a purgative is to make an infusion or decoction of from 2 to 4 drachms of fruit pulp with the addition of a pinch of caraway seeds and a little honey or sugar.

Ainslie notices their use as an application to aphthae. In the Pharmacopoeia of India, Dr. Waring mentions his having found six of the mature fruit an efficient and safe purgative, producing four or five copious stools, unattended by griping, nausea or other ill effects ; probably those used by him were not of the largest kind. Hove in his account of a visit to the Myrobalan Plantation at Bungar in the Concan instates that he found one fruit a sufficient purgative, though the manager of the plantation told him that two were generally used.

Twining Diseases of Bengal, Vol. We have found them a useful medicine in diarrhoea and dysentery, given in doses of a drachm twice a day. Apery has brought to the notice of the profession in Psoriasis Salbe tar the value of these black myrobalans in dysentery, choleraic diarrhoea, and chronic diarrhoea; he administers them in pills of 25 centigrams each, the dose being from 4 to 12 pills or even more in the 24 hours.

Roxburgh states that the tender leaves, while scarce unfolded, are said to be punctured by an an insect, and its eggs deposited therein, which Psoriasis Salbe tar the extravasation of the sap, become enlarged into hollow galls of various shapes and sizes, but rarely exceeding an inch in diameter. Psoriasis Salbe tar also yield the chintz painters on the coast of Coromandel their best and most durable yellow.

They are Psoriasis Salbe tar by the Tamils Kadu-cai-pu, and by the Telingas Aldicai, Fl. In the Pharmacopceia of India they are noticed on the authority of Psoriasis Salbe tar Rev.

Kearns of Tinnevelly as a valuable astringent in diarrhoea. The Himalayan tribes eat the kernels of this myrobalan, and use the fruit as a remedy for sore throat under the name of Khoki. A very large, and tall timber tree, a native of the various extensive forests on the eastern frontier of Bengal where it is called Hurituki ; it blossoms there in April and May, and the seed ripens in November.

The fruit of this, like that of T. Trunk straight, and of very great size. Branches spreading, but not much crowded.

Bark rather scabrous that of the young shoots strongly marked with light coloured, elevated specks ; wood much like mahogany, but finer grained ; a beautiful specimen sent to me by Mr. Smith of Silhet, was accompanied with the following words: This wood is very hard, no insect will touch it.

A tree which yields a resin. Illustrations of the botany and other branches of the natural history of the Himalayan Mountains: The latter, under the name of Ganda-biroja, or, more correctly, Gandahbirozah, is found in all the Indian bazaars, and appears to have all the properties of ordinary turpentine, though differing from it in odour. It is chiefly used as a pectoral plaster like the pitch plaster of Europe, but it has also a reputation in veterinary practice as a remedy for mange.

The Vaids obtain from it by distillation without water a limpid sherry-coloured oil having the peculiar odour of the drug, which they call Khanno Psoriasis Salbe tar in the Deccan; it is in much repute as a remedy for gleet or long-standing gonorrhoea. Atkinson, who describes its collection in Gurhwal and Kumaon, says that it is there called Birja and Lisha or Lassa and that there are two kinds collected, viz.

The yield of a tree thus treated is said to be from check this out to 20 lbs. Pterospermum acerifolium [ L. Bis 20 m hoher Baum. I cannot say where the tree is indigenous; in Bengal, it is found in the gardens only, and is yet but twenty-five or thirty feet high ; Psoriasis Salbe tar seems to be naturally a very large tree.

Flowering time, the beginning of the hot season. The flowers, like those of P. Artocarpus lokutsha read articleR[oxb].

Found in the gardens in the vicinity of Calcutta, and is common all Psoriasis Salbe tar Bengal. It is so far as 1 have seen, a tree of a middling size, with a short but thick trunk, and a very large spreading head. The natives eat the fruit ; to an European the taste will generally be found disagreeable. The male spadix is acid, and astringent ; the natives eat them in their curries. The roots dye yellow. The whole tree and unripe fruit, like A.

It is much cultivated throughout Southern India, and all the warmer parts of Asia ; where it is wild or originally from, I know not. On the coast of Coromandel, it does not in general attain to any great height, Psoriasis Salbe tar thirty to forty feet may be reckoned a high tree, but with a very large, ramous, dense, shady head, particularly when it stands detached from other trees, and a short thick trunk, about twelve feet high ; flowering time the cold season, fruit ripe in four or five months afterwards.

For a more particular account of the fruit, see Gaertner on Seeds, vol. The fruit of this tree is so Psoriasis Salbe tar known, that it is unnecessary for me to say any thing respecting its excellence, as well as that the seeds, when roasted, Psoriasis Salbe tar not inferior to the best chestnuts.

The wood comes near to mahogany in appearance, and is much used for making- furniture, in Ceylon and some other. The Indians of those parts prepare their best bird-lime from the tenacious white juice, which abounds in all the uneatable parts of the fruit, and in the young tender parts of the tree. It flows freely from recent wounds. At first it is somewhat pale, but afterwards assumes a darker tinge approaching to mahogany, and when polished becomes one of Wirkung von Alkohol Psoriasis best fancy woods for tables, chairs, and frames.

The root of the older trees is dark-coloured, and admirably adapted for picture-frames and carving-work of all Psoriasis Salbe tar. Like others of the same family, the tree abounds in viscid, milky juice. The fruit, which grows to an enormous size, and hangs by a peduncle springing from the trunk, is a favourite article of food among the natives. There are several varieties, but what is called the honey- jack is by far the sweetest and best. The seeds when roasted are also much prized as a diet among the poorer classes.

The leaves are given to goats and other cattle, and are said to be very fattening. In Travancore the Jack-tree is a monopoly, and yields an annual tax to the Sircar. The wood Psoriasis Salbe tar an abundant yellow dye, the sawdust being generally boiled for this purpose. The kernels contain a quantity of oil. The tree, if planted in stony soil, grows short and thick; if in sandy ground, tall and spreading ; and if the roots happen to come in Psoriasis Salbe tar with water, the tree will not bear fruit.

Bird-lime is manufactured from the juice. The word Jack is a corruption from the Sanscrit word " Tchackka," which means the fruit of the tree.

The situation of the fruit varies with the age of the tree, being first borne on the branches, then on the trunk, and in very old trees on the roots. In Travancore the mode of propagation is as follows: The natives put the whole fruit in the ground, and when the seeds germinate and grow up they tie the stems together with straw, and by degrees they form one stem, which Psoriasis Salbe tar bear fruit in six or seven years.

The other die geholfen Grundstück Psoriasis worthy of mention are the A. Chaplasha, a native of Chittagong and the forests east of Bengal. It grows to Psoriasis Salbe tar an immense tree, and canoes for river use are made from the trunk. Psoriasis Salbe tar timber is also useful Psoriasis Salbe tar other purposes, especially when required for anything under water. The roots are used for dyeing yellow.

The male spadix is acid and astringent, and is eaten by the natives in their curries. Psoriasis Salbe tar is a large tree, growing on the Neilgherries, and yielding a good timber, but hitherto little known. The deposit from the milky juice is insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol, and entirely so in benzol.

It is a variety of caoutchoue, and in the natural state can be used as a birdlime, or as a cement for broken articles; after being washed in boiling water it becomes harder, and may be used for all the ordinary purposes of India-rubber. The yellow dye which is obtained from the wood Psoriasis Salbe tar of Psoriasis Salbe tar resinous nature, and may be extracted by boiling water or alcohol. This species is common in most parts of India Psoriasis Salbe tar it grows to be a large handsome tree, in appearance it is more like a regular, well-shaped, middle-sized Oak, than any other tree I have ever met with.

It flowers about the beginning of the wet season. Its long pendulous racemes, of scarlet-coloured flowers give it at that time a most elegant appearance. Bark dark-coloured, scabrous, tough and thick. The seeds are very warm and dry, and are used as an aromatic in Psoriasis Salbe tar and parturition. It is suited for ordinary work. This is an evergreen tree article source moderate size, called by Sanskrit writers Hijja or Hijjala.

When children suffer from a cold in the chest, the seed is rubbed down on a stone with water and applied over the sternum, and if there is much dyspnoea a few grains with or without the juice of fresh ginger are administered internally and seldom fail to induce vomiting and the expulsion of mucus from the air passages.

To reduce the enlarged abdomen of children it is given in doses of from 2 to 3 grains in milk. Rumphius states that the roots are used to kill fish, and this use of the bark is known in most parts of India.

The fish are said to be not unwholesome. Barringtonia racemosa has similar properties, the bark, root and seed being bitter. Ainslie states that in Java and in Ternate the seeds are used for intoxicating Psoriasis Salbe tar. The powdered seeds of these plants induce sneezing.

A small tree, a native of the banks of rivulets, and other places, where the soil is moist and rich, common about Calcutta. This species is productive of much tenacious milky juice on being check this out. The fruit is not often eaten, nor is the tree used for any purpose that I know of.

The best form of administration appears to be the seed of the ripe fruit, dried and preserved from moisture in stoppered bottles. The bark is also a good anti-periodic and tonic.

It is the Kat-gular of Hindustan, the Kako-dumar of Bengal, the Bokhera or Dhed-umbar of Bombay, and the Pe-attis of Madras. Sheriff on account of its emetic properties. The shrub has opposite, cuneate, oblong leaves, which are scabrous above and downy beneath. The fruit is like a small fig and very downy; it usually grows from the stem near or beneath the ground; an interesting description of it by Dr. King forms one of the series of Scientific Mewmoirs by Medical Officers of the Army of India, published at the Government Printing Press, Calcutta.

In Bombay and the Concan the powdered fruit heated with a little water is made into a lep, or poultice, which is applied to buboes, which it either disperses or brings rapidly to maturity.

The fruit is also given to milch-cattle to dry up their milk. The emetic properties of the plant are due to the presence of saponin. Nimba, Melia azedarach L. Nimba azadaracta or Melia azadirachta. A middling sized, very common, beautiful, and very useful tree. It differs flora Psoriasis Salbe tar the other species known to me in having a one-celled, one-seeded nut, though the germ has uniformly five-cells, with one or two ovula in each.

Common Bead-tree or Persian Liliac. This, however, is doubtful The root, which is nauseous and bitter, is used in North America as an anthelmintic. A valuable oil is procured from them. Melia azederach has been considered poisonous from the time of Avicenna; but it is only in larger doses that its fruit can be considered as such.

Loureiro recognises ist komplexe Form der Schuppenflechte usually utility of Psoriasis Salbe tar in worm cases, and Blume states that both it and M.

A decoction of the leaves is said to be astringent and stomachic, and also to be injurious to Psoriasis Salbe tar, and employed with success against read more. The tree has been naturalised in the south of Europe. The bark is considered to be bitter, tonic, and astringent.

Chakradatta recommends a poultice of the leaves mixed with Sesamum seeds for unhealthy ulcerations. The fruit is described as purgative, emollient, and anthelmintic. The oil of the seeds is applied to suppurating scrofulous glands, is given in leprosy, rheumatism, and a variety of diseases. It is vermifuge, and is a remedy for mange in dogs. It has been used in the manufacture of soap.

As the oil contains a marked amount of sulphur, neem oil soap might possibly be useful in cutaneous affections in which a Psoriasis Salbe tar sulphuretted application is indicated. The beneficial effects of the oil when rubbed into the skin in rheumatism is doubtless due to the presence of organically combined sulphur.

The gum is said to have stimulant properties. The young trees tapped yield a saccharine juice, which when fermented is Psoriasis Salbe tar as a stomachic; several observers have noticed that in certain years this juice appears to flow with unusual abundance.

The dried flowers are used as a tonic after fever, Psoriasis Salbe tar under the name of Pancha-nimba, a medicine is prepared which contains the flowers, fruit, leaves, bark, and root of the tree, of each 15 parts, and one part each of a number of other drugs. The nimba is also one of the Pancha-tikta or five bitters. The air waved with a Neem branch is supposed to be a cure for syphilis.

The insane are passed through a cleft of the tree, or a stem which having parted and re-united forms a circular opening. This is covered with flowers and sprinkled with sandalwood water.

It Psoriasis Salbe tar kept in a small temporary shed for three days, during Psoriasis Salbe tar time the people feast and drink, sacrificing lambs and fowls to Marima, the daughter of Siva; at the end of the three days they the pot into the water. Amongst certain castes the leaves of the Neem are placed in the mouth on their return from funerals as an emblem of grief.

Five to eight leaves are eaten by all Hindus on the first day of the New Year, and are supposed to ensure freedom from disease; when amrita ambrosia was being conveyed to heaven from the lower world for the use of the gods, it is believed that a few drops if it fell on this tree. For an account of the mythology of amrita, see De Gubernatis, Psoriasis Salbe tar. This useful tree naturally attracted the attention of the Mahometans upon their arrival in the country, and they named it Azaddarakht-i-Hindi, from its resemblance to the Melia Azadarach or Persian Lilac.

The author of the Makhzan-el-Adwiya is careful to point out that the Indian Neem is not found in Persia. He describes the Neem and Azaddarakht separately, giving Bakayan as the Indian name for the latter. The Mahometans use the different products of the Neem in the same manner as the Hindus, and like them consider it to be cold and dry.

Amongst European physicians, Wight says, "The leaves beaten to a pulp, and externally applied, act like a charm in removing the most intractable forms of psora and other pustular eruptions. White, of Bombay, has recommended the bark as a Psoriasis Salbe tar others have spoken favourably of the leaves as a local application t oulcers and certain obstinate skin diseases.

Hove thus speaks of the Neem tree: The leaves are of a powerful bitter, Psoriasis Salbe tar they use a strong decoction with great success in intermittents, and which I usually drank for my liver complaint and found myself much relieved by it.

From recent experience detailed in the Pharmacopoeia of India, it would appear that the opinion of the natives of India regarding the medicinal properties of the different parts of this tree is substantially correct. The bark is now official in the abovementioned Pharamacopoeia. The Hindus do not appear to have paid much attention to it, but it has been described by Ibn Sina in his second Psoriasis Salbe tar under the name of Azaddarakht, and has long been used by the Arabs and Persians, who consider it to be hot and dry, and to have deobstruent, resolvent, and alexipharmic properties.

The flowers and leaves are applied as a poultice to relieve nervous headache. The juice of the leaves administered internally is said to be anthelmintic, antilithic, diuretic, and emmenagogue, and is thought to resolve cold swellings, and expel the humours which give rise to them.

The bark and leaves are used internally and externally in leprosy and scrofula. A poultice of the flowers is said to kill lice and cure eruptions of the scalp. The fruit has poisonous properties, but nevertheless is prescribed in click the following article and scrofula, and is worn as a necklace to avert contagious diseases.

In China it is used as a vermifuge. Loureiro states that the Chinese boil the berries in wine and then make a decoction of them, which has no injurious effects. The leaves and bark they use in itch and other skin diseases.

The root-bark of M. It has a bitter, nauseous taste, and yields its virtues to boiling water. It is administered in the form of decoction 4 ozs.

Some make these terms synonymous with the preceeding. A native of Bengal, and of the Psoriasis Salbe tar provinces to the northward, Flowering time the beginning of the hot season; the seed ripens about the close of the year. This tree yields the Bengal ship-builders their crooked timbers and knees.

It is tolerably light, remarkably strong, but unfortunately not so durable Psoriasis Salbe tar could be wished. It answers well for various other economical purposes ; the colour, a light greyish brown, with darker coloured veins.

Upon the whole I scarcely know any other tree that deserves more attention. It is good for ordinary economical purposes. It is much used in Bengal for knees and crooked timber in ship-building, as well as for gun-carriages and mail-carts. Its great durability combines to render it one of the most valuable timbers known. There are few trees which so much deserve attention, considering its rapid growth, beauty, and usefulness. It grows rapidly, is propagated and reared with facility, and early attains a good working condition of timber.

Plantations have been recommended along the channels of the northern Annicuts. It attains its full size in fifty Psoriasis Salbe tar. It is said to be proof against the attacks of white ants. The timber is very good for gun-carriages, and in some parts is largely used in dockyards. Also for saddles, boxes, and all furniture.

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